Rampai Srinual

Country: Thailand


The objectives of this study are to: 1) describe the meanings given to sexual violence and social background of giving such meaning; 2) explore the social background and other factors in the perception of sexuality; 3) identify the level and patterns of sexual experience and sexual violence experience; 4) investigate determinant factors of being survivor of sexual violence and factors of becoming sexual violence offenders among male students. The data comes from two methodologies including quantitative and qualitative methods. The school-based survey of students in lower secondary schools, upper secondary schools and vocational colleges in a province of central Thailand was conducted during a 9- month period from January to September 2002. Altogether, 640 male and 652 female students were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews, 6 groupdiscussions classified by sex and education levels, and non-participation observations were undertaken. Ecological framework and feminist approach were employed as analytical concepts. The quantitative results show that the number of students who had sexual experience increased by level of education. There is the highest incidence of sexual experience among vocational students. It is very interesting that 10 and 11 years are the lowest age of having first sex. The incidents occurred when they studied in primary school. Female students from vocational college are the largest group for all types of sexual violence survivors. Most rapists who rape female students are persons who have a close relationship with them, especially as their lovers. The most influential factor on becoming sexual violence offenders among male students is having friends who have abused or sexually coerced women. The qualitative findings reveal that the adolescents give the meaning of sexual violence only in terms of physical violence. The groups also support the myth that if a woman refuses or does not need sex, she has to shout and struggle to demonstrate this. In some cases women may not have a chance to fight because they are drunk, or under the influence of drugs. According to the in-depth interview of male adolescents, they tend to provoke women by words rather than physical coercion if they want to have sex. Social and cultural issues affect these meanings. While results of focus group discussions show high acceptance of stereotyped gender discourses such as that women should keep virginity while men should be dominant in sex. Both male and female adolescents believe a medical myth that men who commit sexually violent acts are mentally ill, and a rape myth that women wearing seductive dress or acting seductively are the cause of rape. Social environments such as family, peer group, media, and novels are also part of the problem.


Doctor of Philosophy in Demography (International Program)
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